The purpose of this site is to collect lab research by medical doctors about herbs that are proven to treat illnesses and counter the false attacks on herbs by the medical industry and false claims by alternative medicine. I let the science tell the facts.
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Catecholamine (used to be called adrenalin)

The importance of catecholamine is that when it is high it increases depression, mood problems, anger, fight-flight, stress and emotions.

1. Medicine Plus "Catecholamines are hormones produced by the adrenal glands, which are found on top of the kidneys. They are released into the blood during times of physical or emotional stress. The major catecholamines are dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine (which used to be called adrenalin)...Foods that can increase catecholamine levels include: Coffee, Tea, Bananas, Chocolate, Cocoa, Citrus fruits, Vanilla" This report also lists drugs that increase and decrease chatecholamine.

2. Wikipedia "A catecholamine (CA) is an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups) and a side-chain amine.[1] A catechol is a 1,2-dihydroxybenzene group. Catecholamines derive[ambiguous] from the amino acid tyrosine.[2] Catecholamines are water-soluble and are 50%-bound to plasma proteins, so they circulate in the bloodstream. In the human body, the most abundant catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and dopamine, all of which are produced from phenylalanine and tyrosine. Release of the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla of the adrenal glands is part of the fight-or-flight response.[3] Tyrosine is created from phenylalanine by hydroxylation by the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. Tyrosine is also ingested directly from dietary protein. It is then sent to catecholamine-secreting neurons. Here, several reactions serially convert tyrosine to L-DOPA, to dopamine, to norepinephrine, and eventually to epinephrine.[4] Various stimulant drugs are catecholamine analogues...Two catecholamines, norepinephrine and dopamine, act as neuromodulators in the central nervous system and as hormones in the blood circulation. The catecholamine norepinephrine is a neuromodulator of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system but is also present in the blood (mostly through "spillover" from the synapses of the sympathetic system).High catecholamine levels in blood are associated with stress, which can be induced from psychological reactions or environmental stressors such as elevated sound levels, intense light, or low blood sugar levels.Extremely high levels of catecholamines (also known as catecholamine toxicity) can occur in central nervous system trauma due to stimulation and/or damage of nuclei in the brainstem, in particular those nuclei affecting the sympathetic nervous system. In emergency medicine, this occurrence is widely known as catecholamine dump.Extremely high levels of catecholamine can also be caused by neuroendocrine tumors in the adrenal medulla, a treatable condition known as pheochromocytoma. High levels of catecholamines can also be caused by monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) deficiency. MAO-A is one of the enzymes responsible for degradation of these neurotransmitters, thus its deficiency increases the bioavailability of them considerably. It occurs in the absence of pheochromocytoma, neuroendocrine tumors, and carcinoid syndrome, but it looks similar to carcinoid syndrome such as facial flushing and aggression.[5][6]
Effects Catecholamines cause general physiological changes that prepare the body for physical activity (fight-or-flight response). Some typical effects are increases in heart rate, blood pressure, blood glucose levels, and a general reaction of the sympathetic nervous system. Some drugs, like tolcapone (a central COMT-inhibitor), raise the levels of all the catecholamines.

3. Pharacological Reviews "The catecholamines, dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine, constitute a class of chemical neurotransmitters and hormones that occupy key positions in the regulation of physiological processes and the development of neurological, psychiatric, endocrine, and cardiovascular diseases. As such, these chemicals and the catecholamine neuronal and endocrine systems in which they are produced continue to receive considerable research attention."

4. Neuropsychopharmacology "Treatment with a-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT), a catecholamine synthesis inhibitor, has been shown to produce pronounced increases in sleepiness and mild increases in negative mood and anxiety when administered to healthy male adults. The present study was conducted to ascertain whether these effects of AMPT are secondary to decreases in brain catecholamines or whether they represent nonspecific drug effects...AMPT treatment led to decreased calmness, increased tension and anger, and a trend for increased depression. Replacement of catecholamine stores with L-dopa reversed the effects of AMPT and was associated with a more rapid recovery from AMPT's effects. These findings indicate that AMPT's effects on alertness and anxiety are catecholamine-specific. Further, they provide additional evidence that catecholamines are involved in the regulation of normal states of arousal, and they are consistent with the view that brain catecholaminergic dysregulation is involved in pathological anxiety states."

5. Wikipedia "L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) is a chemical that is made and used as part of the normal biology of some animals and plants. Some animals including humans make it via biosynthesis from the amino acid L-tyrosine. L-DOPA is the precursor to the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and epinephrine (adrenaline) collectively known as catecholamines."



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