as disease marker
Measurement of neopterin concentrations in body fluids like
blood serum, cerebrospinal fluid or urine provides information
about activation of cellular immune activation in humans under
the control of T helper cells type 1. High neopterin production
is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen
species, neopterin concentrations also allow to estimate the
extent of oxidative stress elicited by the immune system.
Increased neopterin production is found in, but not limited
to, the following diseases:
- viral infections including human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV), hepatitis B and hepatitis C
- bacterial infections by intracellular living bacteria
such as Borrelia (Lyme Disease) and Mycobacterium
- parasites such as Plasmodium (malaria)
- autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis
(RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
- malignant tumor diseases
- allograft rejection episodes.
- A leukodystrophy called Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome
- depression and somatization.
Neopterin concentrations usually correlate with the extent
and activity of the disease, and are also useful to monitor
during therapy in these patients. Elevated neopterin concentrations
are among the best predictors of adverse outcome in patients
with HIV infection, in cardiovascular disease and in various
types of cancer.