Oxidative stress or oxidation
puts a coating of oxidation (rust) around each cell, puts
extra fluids between the cells, decreases cell to cell communication
and decreases lymph, blood, nutrition, and chemical flow
to the cells. It can be caused by ingesting too many oxidants
such as msg, aspartame and sugar or it can be caused by
a disease or contamination and is usually caused by both.
Oxidative stress is present in every illness. Thus
it is basic to address oxidative stress with any treatment
or protocal for any disease.
Understanding oxidative stress is probably the
most important aspect you need to understand to restoring
and maintaining good health. Sadly few in the health industry,
either main stream or alternative understand the importance
of oxidative stress. The main stream medical community completely
ignores it and the alternative does not understand it although
they often prescribe diet changes that help reduce it.
is a free radical and can cause oxidative stress, the minute
we are born we begin to die and our life span and our health
may be largely be determined by our balance between oxidants
Some claim we must have a ratio of 30% oxidants to 70% antioxidants
to be healthy. This means understanding and controlling
oxidants is one of the most important thing we need to know
to be healthy.
Oxidative stress is a root cause of most diseases and is
one of the primary causes of Metabolic Stress. When it is
not the cause of a disease it can be caused or increased
by the disease. This makes treating it and Metabolic Stress
an important aspect to restoring health. A new discovery
is that oxidative stress can be the root cause of depression
Oxidative stress is the balance between pro-oxidants and
antioxidants. To better understand this process see our
The attribute of oxidation (which may be KappaB) creates
or develops an oxidant (free radical) that is harmful to
the body and the anti means it kills or removes the harmful
oxidant. Thus oxidative stress is caused when the pro's
are greater than the anti's. All diseases are claimed to
be the result of oxidation (KappaB) and oxygen.
What is both interesting and alarming is the relationship
to cancer and major diseases to oxidative stress. When is
the last time your doctor warned you about oxidative stress?
Probably never. Do they know about it? Absolutely they know
something or even a lot about it, but may do not believe
Every thing in our world has a positive or a negative charge
or is good or bad for us. Everything has an energy that
is either positive or negative. Even a rock has energy and
an electrical charge. Hold this thought for a minute while
I review what is the difference between oxidation and anti-oxidants.
Oxidants have an un-pared or negative. electrons with each
atom. Anti-oxidants have a paired or positive electrons
with each atom. Thus oxidants are negative. energy and anti-oxidants
are positive energy. In health this means one saps or depletes
our energy and the other adds to or builds our energy. Even
a rock has this energy, so surely our food has the same
positive or negative. energy.
Consider the tea leaf to better understand this concept.
Did you know that Black and Green tea come from the same
leaf? Green tea is from the green or raw leaf in its positive
healthy state. To make Black tea they spread the green leaves
in rows outside in the weather to let them turn black. In
this process the leaf begins to mould and become full of
micro-toxins and micro-fungi. Chemically what happens is
that the anti-oxidants are killed and oxidants take their
place. The same chemical process occurs with a rotting food.
In order for it to rot it has to destroy the anti-oxidants.
The result is that it becomes a poison or negative. state.
Oxidants and anti-oxidants are opposites.
The important thing to understand is that the same chemical
process occur in our body. The more oxidants we have in
our body the more likely we are to become sick. Some claim
that a ratio of 70% anti-oxidants vs. 30% oxidants are needed
to restore or maintain our health.
If you read the above linked articles you will have seen
that numerous diseases are caused by oxidants and others
cause oxidation in our body. Not all diseases are caused
by oxidants, yet they contribute to a negative state of
our body allowing oxidants to accumulate in our body. Removing
all oxidants may or may not cure all diseases, however since
they are a common denominator it certainly would be wise
to remove as many as we can.
There are many foods and causes of oxidation, but smoking
and drinking alcoholic beverages are high on the list. One
item of so called food in our diets is causing unknown harm
to millions, is soft drinks and so called sports or energy
drinks. Artificial sweetness and food additives may also
be full of oxidants.
I find it interesting that some beverage companies tout
the benefits of certain grape wines. How smart is it to
ingest some antioxidant grapes along with some oxidant alcohol?
Why not drink the pure grape and eliminate the oxidants.
It is not just alcohol that this applies to but all foods
we ingest. Too often we try to change our health by adding
nutrition or supplements without first eliminating oxidants.
Oxidants cause rust on steel and our automobile paint to
oxidize. The same occurs within our bodies. Oxidation forms
around our cells and interferers with cell to cell communication.
So before you tank up on anti-oxidants to change this you
must first eliminate oxidants. You cannot expect to out
balance the negative by ingesting lots of anti-oxidants
unless you first remove the oxidants. Some oxidants are
essential for our lives, such as breathing oxygen so we
cannot and should not eliminate all of them, but we darn
well better eliminate all we can, if we expect to stay healthy
or overcome any disease.
Note: comments in [these colored
brackets] and bold text is to help interpret the
following article with difficult medical language.
Med PMID: 8660387 The Department of
Biochemistry & Molecular Biology,
"Albany Medical College, NY 12208, USA. Biochem
Soc Symp. 1995;61:1-31 "The paradox of aerobic
life, or the 'Oxygen Paradox', is that higher eukaryotic
aerobic [oxygen breathing]
(this includes humans] cannot
exist without oxygen, yet oxygen is inherently dangerous
to their [our] existence
[the same process that gives us life,
damages body tissues]. This 'dark side' of oxygen
relates directly to the fact that each oxygen atom has one
unpaired electron in its outer valence shell, and molecular
oxygen has two unpaired electrons. Thus atomic oxygen is
a free radical and molecular oxygen is a [free]
bi-radical. Concerted tetravalent reduction of oxygen by
the mitochondrial electron-transport chain, to produce water,
is considered to be a relatively safe process; however,
the univalent reduction of oxygen generates reactive intermediates.
The reductive environment of the cellular milieu provides
ample opportunities for oxygen to undergo unscheduled univalent
reduction. Thus the superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide
and the extremely reactive hydroxyl radical [three
free radicals that do oxidative damage and drive Diabetes]
are common products of life in an aerobic environment, and
these agents appear to be responsible for oxygen toxicity
[damage done to body tissues by the
process of life]. To survive in such an unfriendly
oxygen environment, living organisms generate--or garner
from their surroundings--a variety of water- and lipid-soluble
antioxidant compounds [everything
before this is P#1] [Vit. A, E & C are just three of
many antioxidants we get from food]. Additionally,
a series of antioxidant enzymes, whose role is to intercept
and inactivate reactive oxygen intermediates [oxygen
free radicals], is synthesized by all known aerobic organisms(P#2)
[the human body has a very complex system to protect us
from damage]. Although extremely important, the antioxidant
enzymes and compounds are not completely effective in preventing
oxidative damage. To deal with the damage that does still
occur, a series of damage removal/repair enzymes [from
our immune system), for proteins, lipids and DNA, is synthesized(P#2]
[our immune system makes inflammatory agents that remove
damaged tissue & replaces it with new, the entire process
must be carefully and tightly controlled, if not the immune
system goes hyperactive and adds to the damage process]
Finally, since oxidative [and
other] stress levels may vary from time to time [injury,
infection, smoke, toxins, over work, poor diet, etc produce
more damaged tissue that needs to be removed & replaced]
, organisms are able to adapt to such fluctuating stresses
by inducing the [increased] synthesis of antioxidant enzymes
and damage removal/repair enzymes(P#2) [the
Immune/inflammatory system that removes/replaces damaged
tissue must increase production dramatically to keep up
with damage]. In a perfect world the story would
end here; unfortunately, biology is seldom so precise. The
reality appears to be that, despite the valiant antioxidant
and repair mechanisms described above, oxidative damage
remains an inescapable outcome of aerobic existence.[from
here to bottom is all P#1] In recent years oxidative
[and other] stress has been implicated
in a wide variety of degenerative processes, diseases and
syndromes] oxidative stress damage from oxygen
radicals activates and drives the destructive process of
Diabetes, a properly controlled immune system would stop
the process. Unfortunately the Diabetic body is
unable to give proper control and the immune/inflammatory
system adds an uncontrolled inflammatory immune system attack
to compound the process], including the following: mutagenesis,
cell transformation and cancer; atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis,
heart attacks, strokes and ischaemia/reperfusion injury;
chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis,
lupus erythematosus [lupus is from
a genetic defect allowing high levels of hydroxyl radicals,
rampant production of defective autoantibodies and poor
immune / inflammatory system control] and psoriatic
arthritis(and diabetes); acute inflammatory problems, such
as wound healing; [proper wound healing
is from the properly controlled immune system removal/replacement
of damaged tissue] photo-oxidative stresses to the
eye, such as cataract; central-nervous system disorders,
such as certain forms of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,
certain glutathione peroxidase-linked adolescent seizures,
Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's dementia [all
underlined diseases have oxidative damage and an overactive,
uncontrolled immune system driving or at least adding to
the disease process] and a wide variety
of age-related disorders, perhaps even including factors
underlying the aging process itself. Some of these oxidation-linked
diseases or disorders can be exacerbated, perhaps even initiated,
by numerous environmental pro-oxidants and/or pro-oxidant
drugs and foods [anything that produces
damage will stimulate a strong immune system inflammatory
response and make it harder to control]. Alternatively,
compounds found in certain foods may be able to significantly
bolster biological resistance against oxidants. Currently,
great interest centers on the possible protective value
of a wide variety of plant-derived antioxidant compounds,
particularly those from fruits and vegetables [anything
that protects the body, lowers the demand on the immune
system, making it easer to control].
of Valencia: "Oxidative stress may
be defined as an imbalance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant
agents, in favour of the former (Sies, 1986); this imbalance
may be due to an excess of pro-oxidant agents, a deficiency
of antioxidant agents or both factors simultaneously. The
origin of oxidative stress is an alteration of the redox
status in cells, leading to a cellular response to counteract
the oxidising action (Sies, 1986). Pro-oxidant agents are
all those that can directly or indirectly oxidise molecules.
The most important pro-oxidant agents in biological systems
are those derived from oxygen, more commonly known as reactive
oxygen species." http://www.uv.es/frag/oxidative_stress.htm
"Oxidation reactions (pro-oxidants) can produce free
radicals, which start chain reactions that damage cells.
Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by removing
free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation
reactions by being oxidized themselves. As a result, antioxidants
are often reducing agents such as thiols or polyphenols."
definition of pro-oxidants
Pro-oxidants are chemicals that induce oxidative stress,
either through creating reactive oxygen species or inhibiting
antioxidant systems. The oxidative stress produced by
these chemicals can damage cells and tissues, for example
an overdose of the analgesic paracetamol (acetaminophen)
can cause fatal damage to the liver, partly through its
production of reactive oxygen species. Some substances
can act as either antioxidants, or pro-oxidants, depending
on the specific set of conditions. Some of the conditions
that are important include the concentration of the chemical
and if oxygen or transition metals are present. While thermodynamically
very favored, reduction of molecular oxygen or peroxide
to superoxide or hydroxyl radical is fortunately spin forbidden.
This greatly reduces the rates of these reactions, thus
allowing aerobic life to exist. As a result, the reduction
of oxygen typically involves either the initial formation
of singlet oxygen, or spin-orbit coupling through a reduction
of a transition-series metal such as manganese, iron, or
copper. This reduced metal then transfers the single electron
to molecular oxygen or peroxide.Wikipedia
definition of antioxidiants
International "Many free radicals are
the result of naturally occurring processes such as oxygen
metabolism and inflammatory processes." http://www.oxisresearch.com/oxidative_stress_completen.html
Weston Price Foundation "Oxidative
Stress (OS) is not, in and of itself, a disease but a condition
that can lead to or accelerate it. OS occurs when the available
supply of the body's antioxidants is insufficient to handle
and neutralize free radicals of different types. The result
is massive cell damage that can result in cellular mutations,
tissue breakdown and immune compromise."
causes Oxidative Stress "There are
several likely ways that cigarette smoke does its damage.
One is oxidative stress"
"Pro-oxidants are chemicals that induce
oxidative stress, either through creating reactive oxygen
species or inhibiting antioxidant systems. The oxidative
stress produced by these chemicals can damage cells and
Research Lab: "Free or unbound copper,
however, is quite toxic. Copper is a powerful oxidant, meaning
it can inflame the tissues and cause oxidant damage." http://www.arltma.com/CopperElimNews.htm
Also See our page on copper
"Laboratory of Natural Medicinal
Compounds, Migal-Galilee Technology Center, Kiryat Shmona,
Oxidative stress (OS) is linked to the development of human
diseases. Early identification of OS-associated diseases
is essential in the control of their progression and treatment.
Efforts have been undertaken to identify reliable endogenous
markers, which correlate with the progression of a disease
in an organ undergoing OS. An ideal biomarker must be validated,
utilize noninvasive sampling, and have a simple, specific
and highly sensitive detection method. Among the currently
used markers assessing OS, are those that are nonspecific
(peroxide value [PV], conjugated dienes [CD], thiobarbitoric
acid reactive substances [TBARS]), and others that measure
end-products of oxidized degradation biomolecules (isoprostanes,
oxysterols, keto-proteins, 8-oxodeoxyguanosine), whose accumulation
is not necessarily correlated with augmented OS. The search
for a more reliable marker necessitates new approaches to
fulfill such requirements and overcome many of the obstacles
associated with the current markers. We suggest a new strategy
of using designed exogenous novel reporters, constructed
from endogenous subunits, that are sensitive to reactive
oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and commonly known
to react with them, forming specific oxidized products.
These subunits are tyrosine (representing proteins), bonded
covalently to linoleic acid (representing polyunsaturated
fatty acids) forming an amide bond, which can be further
connected through an ester bond to a third unit, either
to cholesterol (representing sterols) or to 2'-deoxyguanosine
(representing DNA). Oxidation of the designed probe can
outline, in real time, the formation of oxidation products
and distinguish them from intrinsic biomolecules, provide
information about the relative subunit susceptibilities
to a specific oxidant challenge, and allow for the assessment
of the utility of intervention, such as antioxidant supplementation.
By utilizing such markers, it may be possible to correlate
between the damaged fingerprints of the marker and the specific
pathological conditions. The above markers were tested to
characterize OS in in vitro and in in vivo experiments,
such as in those carried out in human fluids (blood, serum,
saliva), tissues (brain or muscle homogenates), and cells
(macrophages, astrocytes, neurons), pertaining to OS-associated
diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and Alzheimer's
disease.PMID: 19082934 PMID:
When the terms oxidation and redux have been used in the
past I was totally confused and wondered not only what it
means but why it is important to health. The short explanation
is that chemical reactions called oxidation cause damage
to our cells just like rust on steel. It is the attachment
of damaging electrons to our cells. The term redux is the
chemical removal of the rust like attachments. Oxidation
is claimed to be one of the two causes of every disease.
"Oxidizing and reducing agents Substances that have
the ability to oxidize other substances are said to be oxidative
and are known as oxidizing agents, oxidants or oxidizers.
Put in another way, the oxidant removes electrons from another
substance, and is thus reduced itself. And because it "accepts"
electrons it is also called an electron acceptor. Oxidants
are usually chemical substances with elements in high oxidation
numbers (e.g., H2O2, MnO4-, CrO3, Cr2O72-, OsO4) or highly
electronegative substances that can gain one or two extra
electrons by oxidizing a substance (O, F, Cl, Br).Substances
that have the ability to reduce other substances are said
to be reductive and are known as reducing agents, reductants,
or reducers. Put in another way, the reductant transfers
electrons to another substance, and is thus oxidized itself."
"The chemical process of oxidation occurs when a particular
material or a compound combines with oxygen, and in the
process, gives up a few of its electrons. As a rule, an
addition of oxygen has to compulsorily be with a certain
amount of reduction. Examples of oxidation include burning
and rusting although, both occur at very different speeds.
Oxidation reactions are also known as Redox (the word come
from reduction-oxidation) reactions, those in which the
oxidation number of atoms is altered. Therefore oxidation
essentially refers to the loss of an electron by an atom,
a molecule or an ion." http://www.blurtit.com/q237634.html
Lester Packer & Enrique
Cadenas, titled "Oxidants and antioxidants revisited.
New Concepts of Oxidative Stress." department
of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy,
University of Southern California, 1985.
My review. They define Oxidative
Stress as; "imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants...leads
to cell and tissue injury". They review the term 'reactive
oxygen species'. Quote: "(NO) a free radical
generated by a variety of cell types by nitric oxide synthases
(NOS)" For non professional purposes this part of their
study simply states that it is along with other signaling
processes caused the most rapid reactions in biology, and
yields a potent non-radical called peroxynitrate.
They then state nearly all diseases involve free-radicals.
Quote; "Both reactive oxygen and nitrogen species
are involved in the redox regulation of cell functions"
Wikipedia defines Redox as; "chemical reactions in
which atoms have their oxidation state changed." link
Redox generally means oxidation is being reduced and becomes
less of a problem.
They state in a very deep
scientific manner that hydrogen peroxide may impede oxidation
for Alzheimer's, Parkinson's Huntington's disease and amyotrophic
lateral sclerosis. Quote, "Hydrogen peroxide is probably
the most important redox signaling molecule that among others,
can activate NF-KB,"
NF-KB means Kappa
B. If I am reading their report correctly, they
claim Hydrogen peroxide can stop oxidation for the listed
diseases better than any other thing they have studied.
This is a great shock to me, as I am been a vigorous opponent
of Hydrogen peroxide.
They review findings in
a study by Jones indicating that measuring cystiene and
cystine, thioredoxin (reduced) thioredoxin (oxidized) allow
a means to determine the level of oxidation in a person.
They state another measuring process with a ratio of glutathionylated/deglutathionylated
The important aspects of
this research report is that
- Oxidative stress is the root or foundation, either causing
or a result of almost every disease, delaying wound healing,
causing tumors and skin cancer.
- Researchers are finding ways to measure Oxidative stress
in the human body.
- Their list of natural items to fight Oxidative stress
Pub Med source if you want to purchase the report: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=17729110