The Sodium Potassium Pump is one
of several gateways into cells and there may be hundreds
of thousands of Sodium Potassium Pumps into a single cell.
To see how the pump works view this animation
of the sodium potassium pump
The proper function of this pump
affects the entire body because it produces both electricity
and a chemical transfer required to run the body. The pump
is regulated by hormones see item 3 below. What this means
to us is that Excito
Toxins are interupting proper function of hormones and
they are essential for proper function of the pumps. (3)
An improper function of these pumps is reported to cause
"Na+/K+-ATPase (fully Sodium-Potassium Adenosine Triphosphatase,
also known as the Na+/K+ pump, sodium-potassium pump, or
simply sodium pump, for short) is an enzyme (EC 188.8.131.52)
located in the plasma membrane (to be specific, an electrogenic
transmembrane ATPase) in all animals...Active transport
is responsible for cells containing relatively high concentrations
of potassium ions but low concentrations of sodium ions.
The mechanism responsible for this is the sodium-potassium
pump, which moves these two ions in opposite directions
across the plasma membrane. This was investigated by following
the passage of radioactively labeled ions across the plasma
membrane of certain cells. It was found that the concentrations
of sodium and potassium ions on the two other sides of the
membrane are interdependent, suggesting that the same carrier
transports both ions. It is now known that the carrier is
an ATP-ase and that it pumps three sodium ions out of the
cell for every two potassium ions pumped in." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Na%2B/K%2B-ATPase
"The ionic transport conducted by sodium pumps creates
both an electrical and chemical gradient
across the plasma membrane. This is critical not only for
that cell but, in many cases, for directional fluid and
electrolyte movement across epithelial sheets. Some key
examples include: The cell's resting membrane potential
is a manifestation of the electrical gradient, and the gradient
is the basis for excitability in nerve and muscle cells.
Export of sodium from the cell provides the driving force
for several facilitated transporters, which import glucose,
amino acids and other nutrients into the cell. Translocation
of sodium from one side of an epithelium to the other side
creates an osmostic gradient that drives absorption of water.
Important instances of this phenomenon can be found in the
absorption of water from the lumen of the small intestine
and in the kidney. Depending on cell type, there are between
800,000 and 30 million pumps on the surface of
cells. They may be distributed fairly evenly,
or clustered in certain membrane domains, as in the basolateral
membranes of polarized epithelial cells in the kidney and
intestine. bnormalities in the number or function of Na+-K+-ATPases
are thought to be involved in several pathologic states,
particular heart disease and hypertension. Well-studied
examples of this linkage include: Several types
of heart failure are associated with significant reductions
in myocardial concentration of Na+-K+-ATPase. Excessive
renal reabsorption of sodium due to oversecretion of aldosterone
has been associated with hypertension in humans"...
"Major hormonal controls
over pump activity can be summarized as follows:
Thyroid hormones appear to be a major player
in maintaining steady-state concentrations of pumps in most
tissues. This effect appears to result from stimulation
of subunit gene transcription.
Aldosterone is a steroid hormone with major
effects on sodium homeostasis. It stimulates both rapid
and sustained increases in pump numbers within several tissues.
The sustained effect is due to enhanced transcription of
the genes for both subunits.
Catecholamines have varied effects, depending
on the specific hormone and tissue. For example, dopamine
inhibits Na+-K+-ATPase activity in kidney, while epinephrine
stimulates pump activity in skeletal muscle. These effects
seem to be mediated via phosphorylation or dephosphorylation
of the pumps.
Insulin is a major regulator of potassium
homeostasis and has multiple effects on sodium pump activity.
Within minutes of elevated insulin secretion, pumps containing
alpha-1 and 2 isoforms have increased affinity for sodium
and increased turnover rate. Sustained elevations in insulin
causes upregulation of alpha-2 synthesis. In skeletal muscle,
insulin may also recruit pumps stored in the cytoplasm or
activate latent pumps already present in the membrane."
effect of quercetin, a plant-derived bioflavonoid with documented
positive effect on the cardiovascular system,...Quercetin
induced a decrease of Na,K-ATPase activity in the presence
of all ATP and Na(+) concentrations investigated..."
21081803 This is an essential
bit of research because Quercetin is important to run these
our page on Quercetin
derivatives in onions have been regarded as the most important
flavonoids to improve diabetic status in cells and animal
models...OPE showed greater potency than pure quercetin
equivalent. These findings provide a basis for the use of
onion peel to improve insulin insensitivity in type 2 diabetes..."
OPE stands for onion peel