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Taurine Date Written 2007
Author Joe Holmes Date Revised 7-4-09

Taurine is a sulfur containing amino acid chemically known as beta-aminoethanesulfonic acid. Taurine is a metabolite of the amino acids methionine and cysteine and is found in most cells. As an antioxidant, taurine is used to quench hypochlorite secreted by leukocyte immune cells. Taurine also aids in osmoregulation (maintenance of proper concentrations of ions) inside the cell. Taurine's other biological functions include cellular growth, membrane stabilization, sperm motility, bile acid conjuction and neurotransmission.

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1 Taurine, or 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, is an organic acid. It is also a major constituent of bile and can be found in the lower intestine and in small amounts in the tissues of many animals, including humans
2 Our results show dietary taurine may reduce CYP2E1 expression (chemicals not produced by the body) and activity, and oxidative stress in kidneys of diabetic rats. (removes unwanted or dangerous chemicals from the body such as oxidants)
3 taurine and its congeners reduced membrane damage, the formation of intracellular malondialdehyde (oxidative stress) and oxidized glutathione, and the decreases in reduced glutathione and antioxidative enzyme activities in diabetic erythrocytes. (reduces or heals membrane damage, and repairs oxidative stress and helps diabetics)

1. "Taurine, or 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, is an organic acid. It is also a major constituent of bile and can be found in the lower intestine and in small amounts in the tissues of many animals, including humans.[1][2] Taurine is a derivative of the sulfur-containing (sulfhydryl) amino acid, cysteine. Taurine is one of the few known naturally occurring sulfonic acids." (2)

2. "Effect of taurine supplementation on cytochrome P450 2E1 and oxidative stress in the liver and kidneys of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Yao HT, Lin P, Chang YW, Chen CT, Chiang MT, Chang L, Kuo YC, Tsai HT, Yeh TK. Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung City 404, Taiwan. To investigate whether diabetes-induced alterations of CYP2E1 and oxidative stress can be modulated by dietary taurine supplementation, male Wistar rats were divided into non-diabetic, diabetic, and diabetic taurine-supplemented groups (administered at 2% in the drinking water). Increased levels of CYP2E1-catalyzed p-nitrophenol hydroxylation were found in liver and kidney microsomes of rats with STZ-induced diabetes compared to those of non-diabetic control rats. Immunoblot and RT-PCR analyses of CYP2E1 protein and mRNA levels in the liver and kidneys showed the same trend as with enzyme activities. Taurine supplementation significantly decreased the enzyme activity and expression (protein and mRNA) of CYP2E1 in diabetic rat kidneys. Plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration was significantly reduced in taurine-treated diabetic rats. The induction of heme oxygenase-1 mRNA was suppressed by taurine treatment in diabetic rat kidneys. An increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) and a higher ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) together with lower values of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were observed in the kidneys of taurine-treated diabetic rats. However, taurine supplementation caused only a slight or insignificant effect on these alternations in the liver of diabetic rats. Our results show dietary taurine may reduce CYP2E1 expression and activity, and oxidative stress in kidneys of diabetic rats. PMID: 19406192 (2)

3. "The effects of taurine, taurine homologs and hypotaurine on cell and membrane antioxidative system alterations caused by type 2 diabetes in rat erythrocytes. Gossai D, Lau-Cam CA. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions, St. John's University, Jamaica, NY, USA.

This study compared taurine, aminomethanesulfonic acid, homotaurine and hypotaurine for the ability to modify indices of oxidative stress and membrane damage associated with type 2 diabetes. In the study, male Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar-Kyoto rats were allowed free access to a high fat and normal diet, respectively, for 9 weeks. At the end of week 8, half of the animals in each group received a daily intraperitoneal dose of a sulfur compound (0.612 M/kg) for 5 days and, 24 hr after the last treatment, blood samples were withdrawn by cardiac puncture to obtain plasma and erythrocyte fractions for biochemical analyses. Relative to control values, taurine and its congeners reduced membrane damage, the formation of intracellular malondialdehyde and oxidized glutathione, and the decreases in reduced glutathione and antioxidative enzyme activities in diabetic erythrocytes. Except for a few isolated instances, all test compounds were equiprotective. PMID: 19239167

1
Wickipedia
2
PMID: 19406192
3
PMID: 19239167
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 
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