They act as emulsifiers, helping to mix ingredients such
as oil and water that would not otherwise blend well. In
health these are used in skin ointments to mix oil and water
to deliver various tratments.
monoglyceride, more correctly known as a monoacylglycerol,
is a glyceride consisting of one fatty acid chain covalently
bonded to a glycerol molecule through an ester linkage.
Monoacylglycerol can be broadly divided into two groups;
1-monoacylglycerols and 2-monoacylglycerols, depending on
the position of the ester bond on the glycerol moiety.
Monoacylglycerols can be formed by both industrial chemical
and biological processes. They are formed biochemically
via release of a fatty acid from diacylglycerol by diacylglycerol
lipase. Monoacylglycerols are broken down by monoacylglycerol
Mono- and diglycerides are commonly added to commercial
food products in small quantities. They act as emulsifiers,
helping to mix ingredients such as oil and water that would
not otherwise blend well.
The commercial source may be either animal (cow- or hog-derived)
or vegetable, and they may be synthetically made as well.
They are often found in bakery products, beverages, ice
cream, chewing gum, shortening, whipped toppings, margarine,
and confections. When used in bakery products,
monoglycerides improve loaf volume, and create a smooth,
One special monoacylglycerol, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, is
a full agonist of the cannabinoid receptors. Another important
monoacylglycerol is 2-oleoylglycerol, which is a GPR119