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Hyponatremia

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Hyponatremia A condition on salt deficeincy causing the body's cells to not function properly. Do not use table salt to remidy this condition! Table salt is toxic. See our water and salt pages.

1. Wipipedia: "Hyponatremia (British: hyponatraemia) is an electrolyte disturbance (disturbance of the salts in the blood) in which the sodium (Natrium in Latin) concentration in the plasma is lower than normal(hypo in Greek; in this case, below 135 mmol/L).

Severe or rapidly progressing hyponatremia can result in swelling of the brain (cerebral edema), and the symptoms of hyponatremia are mainly neurological. Hyponatremia is most often a complication of other medical illnesses in which either fluids rich in sodium are lost (for example because of diarrhea or vomiting), or excess water accumulates in the body at a higher rate than it can be excreted (for example in polydipsia or syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, SIADH). There may also be spurious hyponatremia (pseudohyponatremia or factitious hyponatremia) if other substances expand the serum and dilute the sodium (for example, high blood levels of fats in hypertriglyceridemia or high blood sugar in hyperglycemia)." (1)

2. By Mayo Clinic staff: Hyponatremia is an abnormally low concentration of sodium in your blood.

When your blood sodium is too low, your cells malfunction — causing swelling. In chronic hyponatremia, sodium levels drop gradually over several days or weeks — and symptoms are typically moderate. In acute hyponatremia, sodium levels drop rapidly — resulting in potentially dangerous effects, such as rapid brain swelling, which can result in coma and death.

Hyponatremia occurs when the sodium in your blood is diluted by excess water. Hyponatremia may result from medical conditions that impair excretion of water from your body, or by a significant increase in water consumption, such as by athletes competing in marathons and other high-endurance events.

3.Symptoms By Mayo Clinic staff: Hyponatremia symptoms may include:

* Nausea and vomiting
* Headache
* Confusion
* Lethargy
* Fatigue
* Appetite loss
* Restlessness and irritability
* Muscle weakness, spasms or cramps
* Seizures
* Decreased consciousness or coma" (3)

4. Medline Plus: "Sodium circulates in the body fluids outside the cells. It is very important for maintaining blood pressure. Sodium is also needed for nerves and muscles to work properly.

When sodium levels drop in the fluids outside the cells, water will seep into the cells to balance the salt levels. The cells will swell as a result of the excess water. Although most cells can handle this swelling, brain cells cannot, because the skull confines them. Brain swelling causes most of the symptoms of hyponatremia." (4)

5. What Causes Hyponatremia?

Certain conditions may cause a lack of sodium in the blood. Specific causes of hyponatremia include:

*
Water intoxication (water replacement without replacement of blood electrolytes).
*
Kidney, heart or liver problems.
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Drugs - such as diuretics, Heparin, certain chemotherapy drugs (Aminoglutethimide, Cyclophosphamide and Vincristine).
*
Conditions related to steroid, hormone or defects in your metabolism such as: Syndrome of Inappropriate Anti-Diuretic Hormone (SIADH) - This occurs when a hormone, ADH, is not being properly regulated. You may be urinating frequently, and your kidneys are excreting too much sodium. This may occur as a result of many conditions, including certain types of lung cancer...Avoid caffeine and alcohol, as these can cause you to have electrolyte disturbances." (5)

1 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyponatremia
2 http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hyponatremia/DS00974
3 http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hyponatremia/DS00974/DSECTION=symptoms
4 http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000394.htm
5 http://www.chemocare.com/managing/hyponatremia-low-sodium.asp
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