1. Wickipedia "Fenugreek
(Trigonella foenum-graecum) is a plant in the family Fabaceae.
Fenugreek is used both as a herb (the leaves) and as a spice
(the seed). It is cultivated worldwide as a semi-arid crop.
It is frequently used in curry...The rhombic yellow to amber
colored fenugreek seed, commonly called maithray, is frequently
used in the preparation of pickles, curry powders, and pastes,
and is often encountered in the cuisine of the Indian subcontinent.
The young leaves and sprouts of fenugreek are eaten as greens,
and the fresh or dried leaves are used to flavor other dishes.
The dried leaves (called kasuri methi) have a bitter taste
and a strong characteristic smell." (1)
a plant-derived treatment for metabolic syndrome. Jetté
L, Harvey L, Eugeni K, Levens N. BELLUS Health Inc, 275
Boulevard Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec H7V 4A7, QC, Canada.
The plant fenugreek has been used for centuries
as a treatment for diabetes. This article
presents evidence that the major isomer of 4-hydroxyisoleucine,
an atypical branched-chain amino acid derived from fenugreek,
is responsible for the effects of this plant on glucose
and lipid metabolism. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine was demonstrated
to stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion by a direct
effect on pancreatic islets. In addition to stimulating
insulin secretion, 4-hydroxyisoleucine reduced insulin resistance
in muscle and/or liver by activating insulin receptor substrate-associated
phosphoinositide 3 (PI3) kinase activity. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine
also reduced body weight in diet-induced obese mice. The
decrease in body weight was associated with a marked decrease
in both plasma insulin and glucose levels, both of which
are elevated in this animal model. Finally, 4-hydroxyisoleucine
decreased elevated plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol
levels in a hamster model of diabetes. Based on
the beneficial metabolic properties that have been demonstrated,
4-hydroxyisoleucine, a simple, plant-derived amino acid,
may represent an attractive new candidate for the treatment
of type 2 diabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia, all key
components of metabolic syndrome." PMID: 19337956