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Schisandra Berry Date Written 8-20-09
Author Joe Holmes Date Revised  

Schisandra Berry is reported to help the liver, diabetes and cancer. Research shows it it is a high antioxidant and works as an antibiotic. Reports show it is a powerful memory and brain improver as well as treating hepatitus and the heart.

1. "Growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 by schizandrin, a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan isolated from Schisandra chinensis, on T47D human breast cancer cells. Kim SJ, Min HY, Lee EJ, Kim YS, Bae K, Kang SS, Lee SK. College of Pharmacy and Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Korea.

Schizandrin is one of the main dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans present in the fruit of Schisandra chinensis (Schisandraceae). Biological activities including hepatoprotective, antiviral and neuroprotective effects of schizandrin and other dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans have been reported previously. However, the antiproliferative (used or tending to inhibit tumor cell growth) effect of schizandrin against human cancer cells has been poorly determined to date. This study examined the antiproliferative effect of schizandrin in human breast cancer cells. Schizandrin exhibited growth inhibitory activities in cultured human breast cancer cells, and the effect was the more profound in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive T47D cells than in ER-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. When treated with the compound in T47D cells, schizandrin induced the accumulation of a cell population in the G0/G1 phase, which was further demonstrated by the induction of CDK inhibitors p21 and p27 and the inhibition of the expression of cell cycle checkpoint proteins including cyclin D1, cyclin A, CDK2 and CDK4. These results suggest that schizandrin inhibits cell proliferation through the induction of cell cycle arrest with modulating cell cycle-related proteins in human breast cancer cells. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd." PMID: 19585470 (1)

2. "Induction of the Phase II Detoxification Enzyme NQO1 in Hepatocarcinoma Cells by Lignans from the Fruit of Schisandra chinensis through Nuclear Accumulation of Nrf2. Lee SB, Kim CY, Lee HJ, Yun JH, Nho CW. Natural Products Research Center, KIST Gangneung Institute, Gangneung, Gangwon-do, Korea.

The upregulation of phase II detoxification genes is believed to play an important role in cancer prevention. The molecular mechanism underlying the changes in gene expression that accompany cancer prevention involves activation of the transcription factor, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). In traditional medicine, the fruit of SCHISANDRA CHINENSIS Baill is used as a tonic, an anti-tussive and an anti-aging drug. In the current study, nine lignans were isolated from S. CHINENSIS and tested for their ability to induce quinone reductase (QR) activity in Hepa1c1c7 mouse hepatocarcinoma cells. Tigloylgomisin H (TGH) and angeloylgomisin H (AGH) significantly induced QR activity and exhibited a relatively high chemoprevention index (CI) (10.80 and 4.59, respectively) as compared to control. TGH also induced QR activity in BPrc1 mouse hepatocarcinoma cells as well, which are defective in aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (Arnt). In HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells, TGH significantly activated gene expression mediated by the antioxidant response element (ARE), a key regulatory region in the promoters of detoxification enzymes, through the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. The results of the current study suggest that TGH functions as a novel monofunctional inducer that specifically upregulates phase II enzymes through the Nrf2-ARE pathway. TGH thus represents a potential liver cancer prevention agent." PMID: 19452436 (2)

3. "Structural identification and antioxidant properties of major anthocyanin extracted from Omija (Schizandra chinensis) fruit.
Kim SH, Joo MH, Yoo SH. Dept of Food Science & Technology and Carbohydrate Bioproduct Research Center, Sejong Univ, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul, Korea.

Omija (Schizandra chinensis) is used as an ingredient in traditional medicine in East Asia. It is consumed as tea and wine and display pinkish-red color and beneficial physiological activity. However, the origin of Omija's unique color and bioactivity has not been studied extensively and its application is very limited. Thus, it was required to determine the chemical structure of major phenolic compounds of Omija fruit and evaluate their antioxidant activity. The colorants extracted from a domestic Omija cultivar were concentrated by a Sep-pak(R) Plus C(18) cartridge. A major high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) peak of anthocyan represented 94.1% of total absorbable compounds at 520 nm, which was further identified by LC-ESI-MS. The mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of the major anthocyan was determined to be 727. Highly pure anthocyan fraction with a semipreparative HPLC was acid-hydrolyzed, and the sugar moieties linked to anthocyan (cyanidin) were characterized by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) analyses. The linkage patterns of sugars and core cyanidin structure were determined by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR analyses. Antioxidant activity of the extract and the purified anthocyanin was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) methods. As a result, the structure of the purified colorant was identified as Cya-3-O-xylrut. At the same molar level of the samples tested, the purified Cya-3-O-xylrut (31.2% and 39.2%) had substantially greater antioxidant activity than l-ascorbic acid (17.1% and 10.1%) from DPPH and ABTS methods, respectively. In this study, Omija colorant mostly consisted of Cya-3-O-xylrut explained 86% (DPPH) and 98% (ABTS) of total antioxidant activity derived from water extract from Omija." PMID: 19323727 (3)

4. "Schisandrin B Enhances Renal Mitochondrial Antioxidant Status, Functional and Structural Integrity, and Protects against Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats. (wide-spectrum antibiotics) Chiu PY, Leung HY, Ko KM. Department of Biochemistry, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Schisandrin B (Sch B), a dibenzocyclooctadiene derivative isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis, has been shown to protect against oxidative damage in liver, heart and brain tissues in rodents. In the present study, the effect of long-term Sch B treatment (1-10 mg/kg/d x 15) on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity was examined in rats. Sch B treatment protected against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity, as evidenced by significant decreases in plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels. The nephroprotection was associated with the enhancement in renal mitochondrial antioxidant status, as assessed by the level/activity of reduced glutathione, alpha-tocopherol and Mn-superoxide dismutase, as well as the improvement/preservation of mitochondrial functional and structural integrity, as assessed by the extents of ATP generation capacity, malondialdehyde production, Ca2+ loading and cytochrome c release, as well as the sensitivity to Ca2+-induced permeability transition, in control and gentamicin-intoxicated rats. In conclusion, long-term Sch B treatment could enhance renal mitochondrial antioxidant status as well as improve mitochondrial functional and structural integrity, thereby protecting against gentamicin nephrotoxicity." (wide-spectrum antibiotics) PMID: 18379049 (4)

5. "Schisandrin B decreases the sensitivity of mitochondria to calcium ion-induced permeability transition and protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat hearts. Chiu PY, Leung HY, Siu AH, Poon MK, Ko KM. Department of Biochemistry, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Aim: In order to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the cardioprotection afforded by schisandrin B (Sch B), the effect of Sch B treatment on the sensitivity of mitochondria to Ca2+-stimulated permeability transition (PT) was investigated in rat hearts under normal and ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) conditions. Results: Myocardial I-R injury caused an increase in the sensitivity of mitochondria to Ca2+-stimulated PT in vitro. The enhanced sensitivity to mitochondrial PT was associated with increases in mitochondrial Ca2+ content as well as the extent of reactive oxidant species production in vitro and cytochrome c release in vivo. The cardioprotection afforded by Sch B pretreatment against I-R-induced injury was paralleled by the decrease in the sensitivity of myocardial mitochondria to Ca2+-stimulated PT, particularly under I-R conditions. Conclusion: The results suggest that Sch B treatment increases the resistance of myocardial mitochondria to Ca2+-stimulated PT and protects against I-R-induced tissue injury."PMID: 17883940 (5) In other words it helps the heart (5)

6. "Schizandrin reverses memory impairment in rats. Egashira N, Kurauchi K, Iwasaki K, Mishima K, Orito K, Oishi R, Fujiwara M. Department of Pharmacy, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan.

The present study investigated the effect of schizandrin, a component of the fruit of Schizandra chinesis Baill (Fructus Schizandrae), on memory impairment in rats. Scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), a non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist, markedly impaired spatial memory in an eight-arm radial maze. A higher dose of scopolamine (3 mg/kg, i.p.) also impaired the passive avoidance response. Schizandrin (1 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reversed the scopolamine-induced impairment of spatial memory. Similarly, schizandrin (1 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reversed the scopolamine-induced impairment of the passive avoidance response. Moreover, in mice, schizandrin (1 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) enhanced tremors induced by oxotremorine, a muscarinic M(1) receptor agonist. Taken together these findings suggest that schizandrin reverses scopolamine-induced memory impairment, in part, by enhancing cholinergic function, and that schizandrin might be useful for treating memory deficits. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd." PMID: 17705144 (6)

7. Clinical and pharmacological studies on liver diseases treated with Kampo herbal medicine. Cyong JC, Ki SM, Iijima K, Kobayashi T, Furuya M. Department of Bioregulatory Function, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection frequently causes chronic hepatitis, which is linked to the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Most physicians who practice Kampo medicine in Japan have observed that Kampo medicine can be as effective as interferon therapy in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. In the present study, to evaluate the effect of Kampo medicine on chronic hepatitis C, clinical treatment was assessed in short-term and long-term study, and it was shown that ninjin-yoei-to (Formula ginseng compositae: TJ-108) was very effective. Therefore, to find the most active herbal component of TJ-108 in the treatment of HCV, Citrus Unshiu Peel, Schisandra Fruit, and Polygala Root, which are specific to TJ-108, were screened using an in vitro HCV infection model. Among the three herbs, Schisandra Fruit was found to be most active. In the next step, Gomisin A, an active component of Schisandra Fruit, was studied using an in vitro model with MOLT-4 cells and an animal model of immunologically induced acute hepatic failures. It is concluded that the therapeutic effect of TJ-108 on chronic hepatitis C is from the inhibitory effect on HCV infection, and also from the protective effect on immunological hepatopathy of Schisandra Fruit and its lignan component, Gomisin A." PMID: 11154048 (7) This report like so may others is confusing to lay persons but in essence it says Schisandra Berry is very effective in treating hepatitis.

1 PMID: 19585470
2 PMID: 19452436
3 PMID: 19323727
4 PMID: 18379049
5 PMID: 17883940
6 PMID: 17705144
7 PMID: 11154048
8 PMID: 11154048


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