Why smoking is harmful.
is related with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Retinol-binding protein-4 is a new adipocytokine associated
with insulin resistance. We investigated the serum levels
of a series of adipocytokines including retinol-binding
protein-4 in smokers and non-smokers to explore the possible
roles of adipocytokines on smoking induced insulin resistance...
CONCLUSION: Smoking may have effect on insulin sensitivity,
which is correlated with retinol-binding protein-4."
causes Oxidative Stress "There are
several likely ways that cigarette smoke does its damage.
One is oxidative stress" http://quitsmoking.about.com/od/tobaccostatistics/a/CigaretteSmoke.htm
Lung Cell Molecular Physiology: "Cigarette
smoke extract induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in
human lung fibroblasts" http://ajplung.physiology.org/cgi/content/full/284/6/L955
during pregnancy Prenatal exposure to
cigarette smoke is known to produce lasting arousal, attentional
and cognitive deficits in humans. This exposure can induce
up-regulation of nicotinic receptors on a4b2 subunit on
Pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) cells, resulting in increased
tonic activity, resting membrane potential, and hyperpolarization-activated
cation current. These major disturbances of the intrinsic
membrane properties of PPN neurons result in increased levels
of arousal and sensory gating deficits (demonstrated by
a diminished amount of habituation to repeated auditory
stimuli). It is hypothesized that these physiological changes
may intensify attentional dysregulation later in life."