The purpose of this site is to collect lab research by medical doctors about herbs that are proven to treat illnesses and counter the false attacks on herbs by the medical industry and false claims by alternative medicine. I let the science tell the facts.
 
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Smoking

Why smoking is harmful.

1. Wikipedia "Smoking is related with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Retinol-binding protein-4 is a new adipocytokine associated with insulin resistance. We investigated the serum levels of a series of adipocytokines including retinol-binding protein-4 in smokers and non-smokers to explore the possible roles of adipocytokines on smoking induced insulin resistance... CONCLUSION: Smoking may have effect on insulin sensitivity, which is correlated with retinol-binding protein-4." http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22800884

2. Smoking causes Oxidative Stress "There are several likely ways that cigarette smoke does its damage. One is oxidative stress" http://quitsmoking.about.com/od/tobaccostatistics/a/CigaretteSmoke.htm

3. AJP Lung Cell Molecular Physiology:  "Cigarette smoke extract induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in human lung fibroblasts" http://ajplung.physiology.org/cgi/content/full/284/6/L955

4. "Smoking during pregnancy[19] Prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke is known to produce lasting arousal, attentional and cognitive deficits in humans. This exposure can induce up-regulation of nicotinic receptors on a4b2 subunit on Pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) cells, resulting in increased tonic activity, resting membrane potential, and hyperpolarization-activated cation current. These major disturbances of the intrinsic membrane properties of PPN neurons result in increased levels of arousal and sensory gating deficits (demonstrated by a diminished amount of habituation to repeated auditory stimuli). It is hypothesized that these physiological changes may intensify attentional dysregulation later in life." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reticular_activating_system

 

 

 
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